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Marshall Plan Filmography (MPF)

Marshall Plan Filmography Preface

Marshall Plan Filmography Preface

From 1948 to 1954, the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) and its successor, the Mutual Security Agency (MSA), administered the programs of the European Recovery Program, popularly known as the Marshall Plan. To promote the Plan's aims and show what it was doing, the two agencies, along with the European (Regional) Service Center (aka European Production Center) of the U.S. Information Service ESC/ERSC/EPC) produced, adapted, and/or distributed over 300 films, mostly only in Europe. The prime exception was one series of television programs for U.S. viewers, STRENGTH FOR THE FREE WORLD. Some of these were re-edited and distributed in Europe, as well.

Except for those made or sponsored by local ECA or MSA missions, most of the films were made first in English-language versions and adapted later to other languages, primarily in Paris, but some at the local missions.

This filmography is a report on the existence and locations of known copies of these films. Approximately 262 titles are included. Most of those listed were identified by their inclusion in at least one of three available catalogues produced by Marshall Plan filmmakers from September 1951 - July 1, 1954. Some turned up in other publications (see Acknowledgments), and a few others surfaced during research at NARA. Almost all of the films were created under the sponsorship of, and paid for by, the above-mentioned U.S. government agencies. The designations "Sponsored by..." or "produced by _______ for ECA/OSR, MSA/E OR MSA/SRE," indicate that the film was made at the request of these agencies' Information Divisions at their European headquarters in Paris, France. Films made at the request of an ECA or MSA "country mission" are described as, for example, "ECA United Kingdom" or "ECA Austria." Apart from where exceptions are noted, the contracting and supervising production unit for the films was the Film Section, Information Division, ECA (or MSA), Paris.

Sometimes films created by the various Marshall Plan agencies are noted as "USIA" films. This is because the 1953 enabling legislation of the United States Information Agency indicated that USIA would inherit Marshall Plan materials.

In short, although many or most of the films were made by contracting producers, the great majority was paid for by agencies of the U.S. Government. Where the Filmography's description of each film indicates that contractors were used, it may be possible to research the original paperwork (original contracts, correspondence, etc.) for at least some of the films at NARA. To our knowledge, no one has yet tackled that task. Therefore, I can say only that at least at NARA, a researcher is free to make copies of any of the Marshall Plan films in NARA's holdings, but must either research the paperwork for rights or use the films at his or her own risk. Other archives will have their own policies for research and use, and researchers and potential users are urged to inquire directly.

The only film listed that is known to have a current restriction is HOUEN ZO!, a film made at the behest of the "city fathers" of Rotterdam in 1952 to commemorate the destruction of that city in 1940 and to celebrate its reconstruction with American (Marshall Plan) aid. The film was made by Herman van de Horst, who became a preeminent filmmaker in The Netherlands.

Two other prominent Dutchmen who contracted with the Marshall Plan to make films were Ytsen Brusse and Bert Haanstra. Film historians will find in this filmography many fascinating works by these and other well-known European and American filmmakers. Stuart Schulberg, who followed Lothar Wolff as Chief of the Motion Picture Section of ECA-OSR (Paris), wrote in "Making Marshall Plan Movies (Film News, September 1951)": "By 1951, some of the top documentarians in Europe had made films for ECA: Victor Vicas, remembered for his postwar work with Madeleine Carrol and his fine Israeli films; Arne Sucksdoff of Sweden...; Stuart Legg, of WORLD IN ACTION fame...; George Freedland, an American equally at home in Berlin, Paris, Dublin, or Rome; Peter Baylis, documentary chief of Associated British Pathe...Roger Leenhardt of France, who did the monumental BIRTH OF THE MOTION PICTURE a few years back; Arthur Elton of London's Film Centre, and many others. Among these are some young men whose work for ECA has moved them a rung or two up the documentary ladder: Cliff Hornby of Britain, Per Borgersen of Norway, the Vitrotti Brothers of Italy, [the above-mentioned] Ytsen Brusse of The Netherlands, Ernst Nieddereither and Wolfgang Kiepenheuer of Germany. All have produced good, trim pictures designed for both commercial and non-commercial distribution."

Albert Hemsing, a part of this huge effort, wrote "The Marshall Plan's European Film Unit, 1948-1955: a memoir and filmography" for the Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (Vol. 14, No. 3, 1994), pp. 269-297. According to Hemsing, Stuart Schulberg himself was a well-known filmmaker, having won first prize at the 1954 Berlin Film Festival with NO WAY BACK and having subsequently produced for NBC the "David Brinkley Journal" and, for eight years, the TODAY show. Schulberg's predecessor and organizer and first chief of the OSR film unit, Lothar Wolff, had been, according to Hemsing, the "long-time chief film editor at THE MARCH OF TIME and in 1948 had produced LOST BOUNDARIES for [Louis] de Rochemont [Associates], a pioneering feature film about black-white relations in America. (It collected 11 awards.)"

Hemsing also mentions "the Dutchman John Ferno (Fernhout), already acclaimed for his anthropological documentary EASTER ISLAND (1934), his camerawork in Joris Ivens' story of China, THE FOUR HUNDRED MILLION (1938) and his record of WORLD WAR II'S end in The Netherlands, BROKEN DIKES AND THE LAST SHOT. Also mentioned is Geza Radvanyi, who produced E COMME EUROPE for ECA, and who "had made one of the first and best documentaries about displaced children after the war, and also the well-received Italian feature DONNE SENZA NOME (1950)."

Filmmaking for the Marshall Plan reflects its era in the remarkable dearth of names of women in anything but clerical positions. It is worth noting, therefore, that several women occupied important positions in the making of some of the six CHANGING FACE OF EUROPE films (the series also known at one time as THE GRAND DESIGN): Kay Mander and Diana Pine directed CLEARING THE LINES and MEN AND MACHINES, respectively, and Deborah Chesshire was assistant director and unit manager of CLEARING THE LINES. Kathleen Sinnott had charge of continuity for POWER FOR ALL and Olga ______ was script girl and charge of continuity for CLEARING THE LINES.

In pursuit of existing copies of Marshall Plan films, I learned of others created by commercial or other "outside" entities. For example, the Marshall Plan distributed to several participating European countries copies (in various languages) of some films created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A number of these have surfaced in Denmark, France, Germany, and The Netherlands, and more may be available there and elsewhere. However, there is no known catalogue or list from which to make a thorough search. While I have made note of their existence, they and others created by commercial entities are outside the scope of this filmography. Interested parties can contact me.

I hope to add a few external links at a later date to connect the researcher to other appropriate Web sites, as they are developed. For example, the Imperial War Museum's Film and Video Archive in London is working to put its catalogues online. Staffer John Kerr has done a splendid job of entering into spreadsheet form all of the production information and titles in various language versions included in the last known Marshall Plan catalogue (July 1, 1954), and this information will be of great interest to those seeking even more information.

After checking on possible rights issues, I hope also to add a link to the complete versions of "Making Marshall Plan Movies" by Stuart Schulberg and Albert Hemsing's "The Marshall Plan's European Film Unit, 1948-1955: a memoir and filmography."

I welcome additional information or corrections on any of the entries in the Filmography. I would also be pleased to know of the existence and location of any of the titles listed in the section "MARSHALL PLAN FILMS STILL MISSING."


(as of February, 2002)

A few films listed in the ECA/MSA 1951 and 1954 catalogs have not yet turned up. Some may be among those known but retitled; at this point there is no way to know. Please contact me if you have other information or know of locations of copies of any of these.

  1. BOIS D'AFRIQUE. Developing a timber industry in French Equatorial Africa. Sponsored by MSA France, produced by Eli Lotar, 1952.

  2. BROTHER JOHN or other-language-version titles listed below, all of which were versions re-edited in 1953 by the Labor Information Division, MSA/SRE, from the original film of the same name produced by the United Automobile Workers' Union, CIO:
    • P'TIT LOUIS (Belgian French)
    • JAN JANSEN (Flemish)
    • KAMRAT JOHN (Swedish)

  3. FORESTRY IN AUSTRIA. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Austria prior to December 1, 1951.

  4. A GENERAL COMES BACK. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  5. GUERRA A LA FAME. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  6. HEALING THE WOUNDS. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Western Germany prior to December 1, 1951.

  7. ITALY'S POWERHOUSE. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  8. MAKING NO BONES. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Norway prior to December 1, 1951.

  9. MONOLOGUE. Eduardo de Filippo, the Neapolitan actor and playwright, tells how ECA is seen by the man in the street. Sponsored by ECA Italy, produced by Europeo Film, Rome, prior to Dec. 1, 1951.

  10. MUTUAL SECURITY. A live sound record of President Truman's speech to Congress in 1951 advocating acceptance of the Mutual Security Act, with substantial sections of his speech illustrated by scenes of economic and defense activity within America and the Marshall Plan aid countries. At least one version of this speech has been located, but without any of the above-mentioned scenes. Sponsored by MSA, produced by the MSA Film Section, for the U.S. television STRENGTH FOR THE FREE WORLD SERIES, 1952.

  11. OIL. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  12. ON THE WAY. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  13. OPEN SECRET. The story of technical assistance including the visit of U.S. specialists to Europe, European teams to the U.S., and a live sound interview given by a Detroit foundry engineer "on the spot" in a French aluminum foundry. Sponsored by MSA, produced by the MSA Film Section, for the U.S. television STRENGTH FOR THE FREE WORLD SERIES, 1952.

  14. PEOPLE OF VENAFRO. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  15. PROMISE OF LIFE. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  16. PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS or other-language-version titles, all 1951 versions re-edited by MSA/SRE, from the original produced by the Amalgamated Meat Cutters' Union, AFL:
    • LEVENSGELUK (Dutch)
    • VERS UN AVENIR MEILLEUR (Belgian French)

  17. R.521. Shows the reconstruction and progress of the railway system in Italy with the use of ERP counterpart funds. Sponsored by ECA Italy, produced by Telefilm, Rome, 1950.

  18. SMALL WORLD. A color cartoon emphasizing in a highly satiric manner the economic dependence of all people and all nations on their neighbors across the border. Sponsored by ECA/OSR, produced by Jean Image, Paris,1950. Supposedly adapted in Danish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Italian versions.

  19. SPIEL DER WIRTSCHAFT. As described in the last Marshall Plan films catalogue, this film depicts the economic interdependence of the "West German States of Europe" and the world as seen through the eyes of several German children. 14 min. Sponsored by ECA Western Germany and produced by Dr. Rittig, Munich. No date. In German only?

  20. TELLING THE STORY. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Italy prior to December 1, 1951.

  21. TRAIN OF EUROPE. Sponsored by ECA/OSR and OEEC and produced by CAPAG (?), Paris. No date.

  22. A TRIP WITHOUT PASSPORT. Sponsored by ECA Italy, produced by Marcellini Film, Rome, prior to December 1, 1951.

  23. YOU AND I. Produced under the sponsorship of ECA Western Germany prior to December 1, 1951.



Reach the Search Page by clicking on the underlined word Search in the gray band above the page itself or where you find search page underlined. Check the MPF box if you wish only to research titles in the MPF.

Films in the MPF are listed alphabetically by the English version of the title, where one existed. If the original film was in another language, it will be listed in the title of that language.

  1. Some archives holding Marshall Plan films use an article as the first word in the title, and others do not. Therefore, try both. For example, (L')APULIE, (La) MARCHE DU TRAVAIL, (Les) ANNEES DECISIVES (French); (Der) LEBENDE STROM, (Ein) FENSTER IN DIE WELT, (Die) STUNDE DER ENTSCHEIDUNG, (Das) STROMLINIENSCHWEIN (German); (De) MISSENDE SCHAKEL, (Het) EILAND VAN VERTROUWEN, ('T) SCHOT IS TE BOORD, (Een) DAK BOVEN HET HOOFD (Dutch); (I) DUE CONTI, (Il) CANALE DI CORINTO, (La) VIA DEL PETROLIO (Italian); (A) HORA DECISIVA (Portuguese); (The) STRUGGLE FOR MEN'S MINDS (English). Where an English title is known, it is always listed, even if just as a cross-reference tool. Titles in other languages may be a direct translation, but often are not.

  2. Technical difficulties made it impossible to observe the spelling and punctuation variables in the ten languages involved. Therefore, with apologies to friends speaking languages other than English, only the English version of the Roman alphabet is used. Therefore, for example, type "c" instead of "�" or "e" instead of "�." Use "SS" instead of "�," "AE" or "E" instead of "�," etc.

  3. When looking for films or subject matter relating to (The) Netherlands, try also the key word "Holland." For example, the ECA mission in that country was referred to variously as "ECA Holland" and "ECA Netherlands." Similarly, try both "West Germany" and "Western Germany."

  4. When entering key words, try different spellings; e.g., NORTH SEA HARBOR/NORTH SEA HARBOUR.

  5. Similarly, where abbreviations are used, try both with periods and without. Example: ERP IN ACTION and E.R.P. IN ACTION.

  6. When searching for information about the "One-Two-Three" (or "1-2-3") film series, use hyphens between the words or numerals in the title, even though a specific archive may give them another title. For example, NARA's search engine, "NAIL," uses "1.. 2.. 3," while IWMFVA uses "ONE... TWO... THREE...But all such listings in this filmography have a hyphenated version as an alternative title.

  7. The phrase "provisional title" refers to titles given to otherwise-unnamed footage by technicians or archivists in the archive or in a source book, such as Nederland en het marshall-plan (see Source Materials).

  8. Users of the "Guide to George C. Marshall Motion Pictures," the other film listing in this Web site, should know that seven of the eight film titles listed in its FILM ROSTER TAPE XIV are also included in this filmography because copies exist at locations other than NARA. Enter the titles of these films in the MPF search page to find other existing copies.

This represents basically the initial letters of a specific film plus its number in the filmography based on the alphabetical listing of the archive in question. These are listed in alphabetical order after any entries for the U.S. National Archives (NARA), the archive with the single largest collection (approximately 187 titles, 289 copies). For example: AIS-1 refers to ADVENTURE IN SARDINIA, with the first copy listed at NARA. An entry such as OTT-2/4 indicates the fourth existing copy listed in the filmography of the second film in the ONE-TWO-THREE series.

This refers to the location of the specific film copy and that archive's unique number (where provided). Example: "NARA/306.02927" represents a film at NARA in Record Group 306.02927. If no unique number exists, the listing will read, for example: NARA/No cat. number.

Note that the information supplied for any given entry is subject to change and reflects only what was provided prior to February 2002. Inquiries should be made directly to the archive to learn the current status of reference copies. See also TIPS FOR RESEARCHING AT NARA, below.

Although the format of the original ("master") copy of the film is often provided in the entry, the researcher should confirm any such information directly with the archive in question. In several cases the Marshall Plan films have not yet been catalogued, and the information was not available or reliable. The types and condition of the existing film copies, both "pre-print" materials and the prints themselves, vary widely-from original 35 mm negatives, duplicate negatives, fine-grain prints and 35 mm Technicolor prints to nothing more than a 16 mm print. Some prints are in good condition, but others either need or are undergoing restoration. Again, inquiries should be made directly to the archive.

The MPF includes seven series of films created by or for the Marshall Plan: THE CHANGING FACE OF EUROPE, ERP IN ACTION, THE MARSHALL PLAN AT WORK, ONE-TWO-THREE, STRENGTH FOR THE FREE WORLD, TURKEY AND THE LAND, and NEWSREELS. Search for all titles in the series by the above names in the "Series" search box. To find a description of each series, either enter in the "Keyword" search box, for example, TURKEY AND THE LAND (series), or the Filmography Code for that particular description, which ends in "-0" (such as MPAW-0, for the description of THE MARSHALL PLAN AT WORK series). Do not enter the Filmography Code in the "Series" search box.

While most came from the original catalogues, others cannot always be provided with the exactness one could wish. When the original date is unknown, I have used "1900" as a code. In general, for films sponsored by ECA, production is assumed to have been roughly within the period 1949-1951. For those sponsored, distributed, or adapted by MSA or ESC/ERSC/EPC (USIA), production was likely between 1951 and 1954. The most complete information available can be found in the Description.

The contents of the Descriptions can generally be regarded as in the "public domain." Almost all were copied or adapted from those in available original catalogues of Marshall Plan films (See Acknowledgments).

Unlike the film details in the "George C. Marshall Motion Pictures" section of this Web site, the Marshall Plan Filmography does not include information on video copies to be found at the George C. Marshall Foundation Research Library (GCMRL). That information should be available at the Foundation after mid-May 2002, when I turn over the rosters and videotaped reference copies of most or all of the 187 Marshall Plan films presently known to be available at the U.S. National Archives (NARA).

When inquiring about specific films at NARA: Control numbers, notably in the case of Record Group (RG) 306, may or may not contain a certain number of digits, depending upon the source of the list. At some point, someone decided the RG numbers for 306 should all have five digits, so if the researcher cannot locate a 306 control number with fewer than five digits, the appropriate number of zeros should be put in preceding the other numbers. For example, the NAIL listing for ALLIANCE FOR PEACE is RG 306.347, whereas in other sources, it is 306.00347. Note that all RG 306 control numbers in this filmography contain five digits

The only current online search tool for films at NARA is NAIL. Many, but certainly not all of NARA's films are on NAIL. Where an entry does exist, it sometimes provides a more detailed shot list. For example, it is often worth checking NAIL for films in RG 286 (Agency for International Development), RG 59 (State Department), or RG 111-LC. However, the majority of NARA films in this filmography are not to be found on NAIL because they are in the 306 (USIA) Record Group. The Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 prohibited domestic use of USIA materials, including the Marshall Plan materials USIA had inherited. All of these films and other materials were therefore marked "Restricted," and were thereby unusable in the U.S. until Albert Hemsing and Sen. John Kerrey achieved the 1990 passage of Public Law 101-246, which freed government information materials prepared for use abroad, provided they are at least 12 years old.

Technically, therefore, Marshall Plan films are available for use, and most copies are readily accessible. But the process of removing RG 306 items from the "Restricted" area is in flux. If a videotape or film copy of a Marshall Plan film is supposed to be available but is not on the shelf, ask the reference staff to search the "Restricted" shelves not available to the public. Until NARA officials are aware of all relevant titles and control numbers, and a thorough effort has been undertaken to clear all of these films for public use, the researcher must sign a waiver indemnifying NARA when copies are desired.


for Marshall Plan Filmography

ACS-Roma = Archivio Centrale dello Stato (Rome, Italy)

Prof.ssa P. CARUCCI, Il Sovrintendente, Dirigente Generale
Archivio Centrale dello Stato
P. le degli Archivi, 27
00144 Rome
TEL: +39 (0)6 54548568
FAX: +39 (0)6 5413620
BA-FA = Bundesarchiv/Filmarchiv (Berlin, Germany)
Karl Griep, Head
Bundesarchiv-Filmarchiv ( or Karin Kuehn (
Fehrbelliner Platz 3, 10707 Berlin, Germany
Post box address: Postfach 310667, 10636 Berlin
TEL: +49 (0 18 88) - 77 70-0
FAX: +49 (0 18 88) - 77 70-0 999
BFI-NFTVA = British Film Institute-National Film and Television Archive. (Note: The policy of BFI-NFTVA is to catalogue any film by its original language title, as well as any English release title.) (London, England)
BFI Collections - Access
21 Stephen Street
TEL: +44 (0)20 7957 4713
FAX: +44 (0)20 7580 5830
CP-MC = Cinemateca Portuguesa - Museu do Cinema (Note: All potential users must apply directly to CP-MC and comply with its access rules.)
Filipe Boavida
Head of Archive Dept./A.N.I.M.
Cinemateca Portuguesa - Museu do Cinema
Rua da Republica
11 Chamboeira - Freixial
2670-997 Bucelas
TEL: +351 21 968 94 00
FAX: +351 21 968 94 99
DFI-FA = Danish Film Institute-Film Archive (Copenhagen, Denmark)
Danish Film Institute/Film Archive
Gothersgade 55
DK-1153 Copenhagen K
Tel. +45 33 74 34 00
Fax. +45 33 74 35 99
Thomas C. Christensen, Curator
ATTN: Lieutenant Thony
Section Vente aux Professionnels
Tel: (011)/33 (0)1 49 60 52 07
Fax: (011)/33(0)1 49 60 52 06
EgiTek = Egitim Teknolojileri Genel Mudurlugu (General Directorate of Educational Technologies) (Ankara, Turkey)
ATTN: Ms. Aynur Uzer
Egitim Teknolojileri Genel Mudurlugu
Yayin ve Dokumantasyon Sube Muduru
Teknikokullar 06500, Ankara
TEL: +90 (0)312 296 9423
FAX: +90 (0)312 223 8736
FAA = FilmArchiv Austria (Vienna, Austria)
Josef Gloger
FilmArchiv Austria
Obere Augartenstr. 1
Postfach 280
A-1020 Wien
Tel: +43 1-216 13 00-0
Fax: +43-1-216 13 00-100
FII = Film Institute of Ireland (Dublin, Ireland)
Sunniva O'Flynn
Irish Film Archive
Film Institute of Ireland
6 Eustace Street
Dublin 2
TEL: +353 - 1 6795744
FAX: +353 - 1 6778755
GAA = Gemeentearchief Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
(Ferry Bos??)
Gemeentearchief Amsterdam
Afdeling Beeld & Geluid
Amsteldijk 67
1074 HZ Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 (0)20-5720202
Fax. +31 (0)20-6750596
GFA = Greek Film Archive (Athens, Greece)
Deligiorgi Palace
1, rue Kanari
10671 Athens, Greece
TEL: (3010) 36.12.046 or (3010) 36.09.695
FAX: (3010) 36.28.468
IWMFVA = Imperial War Museum Film and Video Archive
Imperial War Museum
Film and Video Archive
Lambeth Road
For commercial inquiries: Paul Sargent, Jane Fish, or Alex Southern (Tel: +44 (0)20 7416 5291 / 5292)
For non-commercial inquiries: Dr. Toby Haggith or Matthew Lee (Tel: +44 (0)20 7416 5293 / 5294)
Fax (all inquiries): +44 (0)20 7416 5299
Email (all inquiries):
LOC = Library of Congress (Washington, DC)
Contact: Email, fax, and telephone inquiries are recommended at this point. Postal service was suspended October 2001 because of anthrax fears. Go to Web site below for more information.
Motion Picture Division
Library of Congress (M/B/RS)
James Madison Building, Room 336
101 Independence Ave., S.E.
Washington, DC 20540
TEL: +1 202 707-8572
FAX: +1 202 707-2371
MAP-PAV = Service de la Communication-Pole Audiovisuel, Ministere de l'Agriculture et de la Peche (France). (Formerly Service Cinematographique du minist�re de l'agriculture)
M. Andre Delacroix
Chef du Pole Audiovisuel
Service de la Communication
Ministere de l'Agriculture et de la Peche
78, rue de Varenne
75349 Paris 07 SP
TEL: +33 (0)
FAX: +33 (0)
NAA = Nederlands Audiovisueel Archief (Hilversum, The Netherlands) (Name may be changed later)
Krista van Koppenhagen (
P.O. Box 1060,
1200 BB Hilversum
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 (0)35-6778035
Fax:+31 (0)35-6772053
NARA = [U.S.] National Archives and Records Administration
Charles DeArman, Librarian
Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS)
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration at College Park
8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, 20740-6001, U.S.A
TEL: +1 301.713.7060, ext. 227
FAX: +1 301.713.6974
NFAI = The National Film Archive of Iceland
Sigurjon Baldur Hafsteinsson, Director
The National Film Archive of Iceland
Vesturgata 11-13
220 Hafnarfjordur
TEL: +354 565 5993
FAX: +354 565 5994
NFI = Norwegian Film Institute = Norsk Filminstitutt (Oslo, Norway)
(Ragnar Lovberg?? Vigdis Lian??)
Museumsavdelingen Norsk Filminstitutt
Box 482 Sentrum
N-0105 Oslo, Norway
TEL: +47 22 47 45 24
FAX: +47 22 47 45 98
NFM = Nederlands Filmmuseum (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Nederlands Filmmuseum
Vondelpark 3
1071 AA Amsterdam
The Netherlands
TEL: +31 (0)20 5891400
FAX: +31-(0)20 6833401
SVT = Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) (Stockholm, Sweden)
Sveriges Television
SVT Sales
Hang�v�gen 18
105 10 Stockholm, Sweden
TEL: +46 (0)8 784 6075
FAX: +46 (0)8 784 3300
VFA = Vrienden van het Filmarchief (Nijmegen, The Netherlands)
Dr. Emile Poppe, Tony van Maren
Vrienden v.h. Filmarchief
Postbus 40181
6504 AD Nijmegen
The Netherlands
(visiting address: Erasmusplein, 1
6525 HT Nijmegen, The Netherlands)
TEL (Emile Poppe): +31 24-361.55.44
TEL (Tony Van Maren): +31 (0)6-12811929
Email: or
Tom Featherstone, Audiovisual Archivist
5401 Cass Avenue
Detroit, Michigan 48202, U.S.A.
PH.313 577-2658
FAX: 313 577-8019


for Marshall Plan Filmography

ECA = Economic Cooperation Administration, which administered $12.4 billion in grants and loans to Western Europe from April 4, 1948, through October 31, 1951. (It was succeeded by MSA.) Headed in the beginning in Washington by industrialist Paul Hoffman, and in Europe by the "Special Representative in Europe" (SRE), W. Averell Harriman, with the rank of Ambassador.

ERP = European Recovery Program. Official designation for the joint aid programs of ECA and OEEC. It was also the popular designation, well known to Europeans at the time.

ESC/ERSC/EPC = (different names at different points in its short life) European Service Center/European Regional Service Center/European Production Center: Located in Paris, the agency was operated by USIA . In addition to the editorial branch, it consisted of four sections: films, photographs, exhibits, and radio. Its function was to disseminate information materials to USIS posts in Western Europe. USIA Washington closed it in 1954 due to budgetary constraints.

FOA = Foreign Operations Administration (Aug 1, 1953-June 30, 1955). Succeeding MSA, the FOA preceded ICA (International Cooperation Administration) and the Agency for International Development.

HICOG = (U.S.) High Commissioner for Germany, the office of the post-World War II American military occupation headquarters

MSA = Mutual Security Agency (November 1, 1951-July 31, 1953) While continuing ECA's economic cooperation and reconstruction in Europe, MSA emphasized American military assistance to the NATO nations and economic aid generally became more defense-related.

NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization

OEEC = Organization for European Economic Cooperation. Set up in Paris by West European nations in 1948 to coordinate their aid requests and work with ECA authorities. Succeeded by OECD (Organization for Economic Reconstruction and Development) 1961, when non-European countries began to join.

OSR = OFFICE OF the SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE, the ECA Special Representative to Europe. See also SRE.

OTAN = Organisation du Trait� de l'Atlantique Nord (French name for NATO)

SRE = ([Office of] Special Representative in Europe, the European headquarters of the ERP and representative in Europe of ECA.). See also OSR.

UK = United Kingdom

USIA/USIS = UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY/UNITED STATES INFORMATION SERVICE (the latter being what USIA posts are called in other countries, e.g., USIS Belgium)


for Marshall Plan Filmography

b&w = black and white

NAIL = NARA Archival Information Locator, a database no longer updated, but available through Many films at NARA are listed on NAIL, but many of those in Record Group (RG) 306, the Record Group for the U.S. Information Agency, are not included. These include most of NARA's copies of Marshall Plan films. A new searchable database is in process, but its completion date is as yet unknown.

PPC = Projection Print, Composite, at NARA. The number preceding it represents the number of reels, e.g. 3-PPC = three reels

RPPC = Reversal Projection Print, Composite, at NARA. The number preceding it represents the number of reels, e.g. 3-RPPC = three reels

RPPCK = Reversal Projection Print, Composite, Color, at NARA. The number preceding it represents the number of reels, e.g. 3-RPPCK = three reels

OTAN = Control Code Name for films at IWMFVA inherited from NATO (OTAN in French)

R = Reel

Ref = Reference (viewing) copy

VM = Videomaster (1/2" VHS reference videotapes at NARA)

VT = Videotape


Marshall Plan Filmography Acknowledgments

Albert Hemsing's history of the Marshall Plan's European Film Unit and his accompanying filmography (see Source Material) was the inspiration and basis for this filmography. His resourceful and extraordinary efforts (aided by the German Marshall Fund of the U.S.) to locate existing copies of Marshall Plan films and to make them available at NARA included, with the help of Senator John Kerrey, the successful passage of an act of Congress. This filmography expands on what he began and includes films in the Library of Congress and archives in thirteen of the seventeen participating Marshall Plan countries. Thanks go first to Prof. David Ellwood, who pointed me to the Imperial War Museum, now the home of the NATO film collection. Paul Sargent, Deputy Keeper of IWM's Film and Video Archive, John C. Kerr, Cataloguing Assistant, and Dr. Toby Haggith of the Public Service Office, provided absolutely critical support. Prof. Ellwood also put me in touch with the most helpful Prof.ssa Paola Carlucci of the Archivio Centrale dello State in Rome, the home of a number of unique copies of films created by ECA Italy.

From there the project grew like Topsy. I owe an additional huge debt of gratitude to the following (omitting titles and institutions in the interest of simplicity): Manfried Rauchensteiner, Josef Gloger, Florian Schattauer, Christiane Reiner, and Reinhold Wagnleitner (Austria), Andrea Murphy (Belgium), Thomas Christensen, Inge Glud, Jorgen Stahnke, and Elise Nymark Jensen (Denmark), Luke McKernan, Shona Barrett, Olwen Terris, and Mark Bryant (also England), Jeannine Faurobert, Andre Delacroix, Marguerite-Marie Le Roy, Monique Barra Blanchard, Sylvie Dreyfus, Pascal Robert, A. Brunel, Pierre Dousset, Francois Desme, Virginie Debrabant, Sabine Dequin, M-Ch de Jabrun, and Jean-Yves Murray (France), Karl Griep, Karin Kuehn, and Petra Sachse (Germany), Nick Karamalegos, Vassilis Tsiboukis, and Emilia Mathes (Greece), Sigurjon Baldur Hafsteinsson (Iceland), and Sunniva O'Flynn (Ireland).

Marshall Plan films are scattered all over The Netherlands, and there are many people to thank: Marja Roholl, Thunnis van Oort, Piet van Wijk, Rian Romme, Bert Hogenkamp, Peter Westervoorde, Rob Hogeslag, Joke Vriezekolk, Olivia Buning, Jasper Koedam, Ronny Temme, Emile Poppe, Tony van Maren, Noel van Rens, Ferry Bos, and Jose Kooyman. Others to whom I am indebted are Irene Waestberg, Ragnar Lovberg, Vigdis Lian, and Sigval Maartman-Moe (Norway), Filipe Boavida (Portugal), Elisabeth Martin-Lof and Ulf Hogberg (Sweden), and Aynur Uzer and Figen Sahin (Turkey).

In the U.S., Washington-area film researchers Elisabeth Hartjens, Jim Konicek, Michael Dolan, Joe Harris, and Joan Yoshiwara gave me all kinds of help, as did NARA staff members Les Waffen, Ellie Wackerman, Mark Meader, Vernon Early, Aaron Brown, Kevin Bradley, Steve Graybill, Dan Martin, Lee Rose, and Dino Zervos. Now-retired Bill Murphy, who had also worked with Albert Hemsing, gave great encouragement and support. At the Library of Congress, Rosemary Hanes, Madeline Matz, and Zoran Sinobad offered every possible assistance. Several people provided much-appreciated help with translations: Marijke Abbott and Christine Waanders (Dutch), Erminia Scarcella and Silvia Emanuelli (Italian), and Ingrid Nilsson (Swedish).

The filmography would never have happened without the initiative and support of Albert Beveridge III, President of the George C. Marshall Foundation. The Foundation's Sharon Ritenour Stevens, Associate Editor of The Papers of George Catlett Marshall and creator of A Guide to George C. Marshall Motion Pictures, offered consistent, intelligent, and caring help. Thanks also to Larry Bland, Editor of The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, who was always available to give needed information and assistance.

And above all, my thanks to my patient and ever-supportive husband, Eric Christenson.

Linda R. Christenson, Editor (, Fax: 703-532-5653)


Catalogue of Documentary Films. December 1, 1951. Distributed by the Economic Cooperation Administration.

Catalogue of Documentary Films. September 1, 1952. Distributed by the Mutual Security Agency.

Catalogue of Information Films Produced In Europe For The Marshall Plan 1948-1953 by the Film Section, Information Division [of the] Special Representation [sic] in Europe; Economic Cooperation Administration; Mutual Security Agency; Paris, France. Prepared by: Film Section, European Service Center, U.S. Information Agency, Paris, July, 1954.

Dingemans, Ralph, and Rian Romme. Nederland en het marshall-plan, een bronnenoverzicht en filmografie 1947-1953. Den Haag (The Hague): Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1997.

Hemsing, Albert. "The Marshall Plan's European Film Unit, 1948-1955: a memoir and filmography." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 14, No. 3 (1994), 269-97. Note: the Historical Journal... is published by The International Association for Media and History (IAMHIST).

Schulberg, Stuart. "Making Marshall Plan Movies." Film News, (September 1951), pp. 10 and 19. New York, Keegan Pub. Co.

Miscellaneous memoranda and notes pertaining to NATO's acquisition and subsequent disposition of films now at the Imperial War Museum's Film and Video Archive.

The Papers of Cecilia B. (Jackie) Martin in the George C. Marshall Foundation Research Library in Lexington, Virginia.

Correspondence with contacts at various film archives (presently in the MPF Editor's possession, eventually to be in the archives of the George C. Marshall Foundation Research Library).

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