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Marshall Plan Filmography (MPF)
Marshall Plan Filmography Preface
From 1948 to 1954, the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) and its successor, the Mutual Security Agency (MSA), administered the programs of the European Recovery Program, popularly known as the Marshall Plan. To promote the Plan's aims and show what it was doing, the two agencies, along with the European (Regional) Service Center (aka European Production Center) of the U.S. Information Service ESC/ERSC/EPC) produced, adapted, and/or distributed over 300 films, mostly only in Europe. The prime exception was one series of television programs for U.S. viewers, STRENGTH FOR THE FREE WORLD. Some of these were re-edited and distributed in Europe, as well.
Except for those made or sponsored by local ECA or MSA missions, most of the films were made first in English-language versions and adapted later to other languages, primarily in Paris, but some at the local missions.
This filmography is a report on the existence and locations of known copies of these films. Approximately 262 titles are included. Most of those listed were identified by their inclusion in at least one of three available catalogues produced by Marshall Plan filmmakers from September 1951 - July 1, 1954. Some turned up in other publications (see Acknowledgments), and a few others surfaced during research at NARA. Almost all of the films were created under the sponsorship of, and paid for by, the above-mentioned U.S. government agencies. The designations "Sponsored by..." or "produced by _______ for ECA/OSR, MSA/E OR MSA/SRE," indicate that the film was made at the request of these agencies' Information Divisions at their European headquarters in Paris, France. Films made at the request of an ECA or MSA "country mission" are described as, for example, "ECA United Kingdom" or "ECA Austria." Apart from where exceptions are noted, the contracting and supervising production unit for the films was the Film Section, Information Division, ECA (or MSA), Paris.
Sometimes films created by the various Marshall Plan agencies are noted as "USIA" films. This is because the 1953 enabling legislation of the United States Information Agency indicated that USIA would inherit Marshall Plan materials.
In short, although many or most of the films were made by contracting producers, the great majority was paid for by agencies of the U.S. Government. Where the Filmography's description of each film indicates that contractors were used, it may be possible to research the original paperwork (original contracts, correspondence, etc.) for at least some of the films at NARA. To our knowledge, no one has yet tackled that task. Therefore, I can say only that at least at NARA, a researcher is free to make copies of any of the Marshall Plan films in NARA's holdings, but must either research the paperwork for rights or use the films at his or her own risk. Other archives will have their own policies for research and use, and researchers and potential users are urged to inquire directly.
The only film listed that is known to have a current restriction is HOUEN ZO!, a film made at the behest of the "city fathers" of Rotterdam in 1952 to commemorate the destruction of that city in 1940 and to celebrate its reconstruction with American (Marshall Plan) aid. The film was made by Herman van de Horst, who became a preeminent filmmaker in The Netherlands.
Two other prominent Dutchmen who contracted with the Marshall Plan to make films were Ytsen Brusse and Bert Haanstra. Film historians will find in this filmography many fascinating works by these and other well-known European and American filmmakers. Stuart Schulberg, who followed Lothar Wolff as Chief of the Motion Picture Section of ECA-OSR (Paris), wrote in "Making Marshall Plan Movies (Film News, September 1951)": "By 1951, some of the top documentarians in Europe had made films for ECA: Victor Vicas, remembered for his postwar work with Madeleine Carrol and his fine Israeli films; Arne Sucksdoff of Sweden...; Stuart Legg, of WORLD IN ACTION fame...; George Freedland, an American equally at home in Berlin, Paris, Dublin, or Rome; Peter Baylis, documentary chief of Associated British Pathe...Roger Leenhardt of France, who did the monumental BIRTH OF THE MOTION PICTURE a few years back; Arthur Elton of London's Film Centre, and many others. Among these are some young men whose work for ECA has moved them a rung or two up the documentary ladder: Cliff Hornby of Britain, Per Borgersen of Norway, the Vitrotti Brothers of Italy, [the above-mentioned] Ytsen Brusse of The Netherlands, Ernst Nieddereither and Wolfgang Kiepenheuer of Germany. All have produced good, trim pictures designed for both commercial and non-commercial distribution."
Albert Hemsing, a part of this huge effort, wrote "The Marshall Plan's European Film Unit, 1948-1955: a memoir and filmography" for the Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (Vol. 14, No. 3, 1994), pp. 269-297. According to Hemsing, Stuart Schulberg himself was a well-known filmmaker, having won first prize at the 1954 Berlin Film Festival with NO WAY BACK and having subsequently produced for NBC the "David Brinkley Journal" and, for eight years, the TODAY show. Schulberg's predecessor and organizer and first chief of the OSR film unit, Lothar Wolff, had been, according to Hemsing, the "long-time chief film editor at THE MARCH OF TIME and in 1948 had produced LOST BOUNDARIES for [Louis] de Rochemont [Associates], a pioneering feature film about black-white relations in America. (It collected 11 awards.)"
Hemsing also mentions "the Dutchman John Ferno (Fernhout), already acclaimed for his anthropological documentary EASTER ISLAND (1934), his camerawork in Joris Ivens' story of China, THE FOUR HUNDRED MILLION (1938) and his record of WORLD WAR II'S end in The Netherlands, BROKEN DIKES AND THE LAST SHOT. Also mentioned is Geza Radvanyi, who produced E COMME EUROPE for ECA, and who "had made one of the first and best documentaries about displaced children after the war, and also the well-received Italian feature DONNE SENZA NOME (1950)."
Filmmaking for the Marshall Plan reflects its era in the remarkable dearth of names of women in anything but clerical positions. It is worth noting, therefore, that several women occupied important positions in the making of some of the six CHANGING FACE OF EUROPE films (the series also known at one time as THE GRAND DESIGN): Kay Mander and Diana Pine directed CLEARING THE LINES and MEN AND MACHINES, respectively, and Deborah Chesshire was assistant director and unit manager of CLEARING THE LINES. Kathleen Sinnott had charge of continuity for POWER FOR ALL and Olga ______ was script girl and charge of continuity for CLEARING THE LINES.
In pursuit of existing copies of Marshall Plan films, I learned of others created by commercial or other "outside" entities. For example, the Marshall Plan distributed to several participating European countries copies (in various languages) of some films created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A number of these have surfaced in Denmark, France, Germany, and The Netherlands, and more may be available there and elsewhere. However, there is no known catalogue or list from which to make a thorough search. While I have made note of their existence, they and others created by commercial entities are outside the scope of this filmography. Interested parties can contact me.
I hope to add a few external links at a later date to connect the researcher to other appropriate Web sites, as they are developed. For example, the Imperial War Museum's Film and Video Archive in London is working to put its catalogues online. Staffer John Kerr has done a splendid job of entering into spreadsheet form all of the production information and titles in various language versions included in the last known Marshall Plan catalogue (July 1, 1954), and this information will be of great interest to those seeking even more information.
After checking on possible rights issues, I hope also to add a link to the complete versions of "Making Marshall Plan Movies" by Stuart Schulberg and Albert Hemsing's "The Marshall Plan's European Film Unit, 1948-1955: a memoir and filmography."
I welcome additional information or corrections on any of the entries in the Filmography. I would also be pleased to know of the existence and location of any of the titles listed in the section "MARSHALL PLAN FILMS STILL MISSING."
MARSHALL PLAN FILMS STILL "MISSING"
A few films listed in the ECA/MSA 1951 and 1954 catalogs have not yet turned up. Some may be among those known but retitled; at this point there is no way to know. Please contact me if you have other information or know of locations of copies of any of these.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING THE MARSHALL PLAN FILMOGRAPHY
USING THE SEARCH PAGE:
ARCHIVE CONTROL NUMBER:
REFERENCE COPY AT ARCHIVE:
TYPE OF MATERIAL:
REFERENCE COPY AT GCMRL:
TIPS FOR RESEARCHING AT NARA
The only current online search tool for films at NARA is NAIL. Many, but certainly not all of NARA's films are on NAIL. Where an entry does exist, it sometimes provides a more detailed shot list. For example, it is often worth checking NAIL for films in RG 286 (Agency for International Development), RG 59 (State Department), or RG 111-LC. However, the majority of NARA films in this filmography are not to be found on NAIL because they are in the 306 (USIA) Record Group. The Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 prohibited domestic use of USIA materials, including the Marshall Plan materials USIA had inherited. All of these films and other materials were therefore marked "Restricted," and were thereby unusable in the U.S. until Albert Hemsing and Sen. John Kerrey achieved the 1990 passage of Public Law 101-246, which freed government information materials prepared for use abroad, provided they are at least 12 years old.
Technically, therefore, Marshall Plan films are available for use, and most copies are readily accessible. But the process of removing RG 306 items from the "Restricted" area is in flux. If a videotape or film copy of a Marshall Plan film is supposed to be available but is not on the shelf, ask the reference staff to search the "Restricted" shelves not available to the public. Until NARA officials are aware of all relevant titles and control numbers, and a thorough effort has been undertaken to clear all of these films for public use, the researcher must sign a waiver indemnifying NARA when copies are desired.
ARCHIVE ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTACT INFORMATION
ACS-Roma = Archivio Centrale dello Stato (Rome, Italy)
MINISTERO PER I BENI E LE ATTIVITA CULTURALIBA-FA = Bundesarchiv/Filmarchiv (Berlin, Germany)
Karl Griep, HeadBFI-NFTVA = British Film Institute-National Film and Television Archive. (Note: The policy of BFI-NFTVA is to catalogue any film by its original language title, as well as any English release title.) (London, England)
BFI Collections - AccessCP-MC = Cinemateca Portuguesa - Museu do Cinema (Note: All potential users must apply directly to CP-MC and comply with its access rules.)
Filipe BoavidaDFI-FA = Danish Film Institute-Film Archive (Copenhagen, Denmark)
Danish Film Institute/Film ArchiveECPA = ETABLISSEMENT CINEMATOGRAPHIQUE ET PHOTOGRAPHIQUE DES ARMEES
FORT D'IVRYEgiTek = Egitim Teknolojileri Genel Mudurlugu (General Directorate of Educational Technologies) (Ankara, Turkey)
ATTN: Ms. Aynur UzerFAA = FilmArchiv Austria (Vienna, Austria)
Josef GlogerFII = Film Institute of Ireland (Dublin, Ireland)
Sunniva O'FlynnGAA = Gemeentearchief Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
(Ferry Bos??)GFA = Greek Film Archive (Athens, Greece)
Deligiorgi PalaceIWMFVA = Imperial War Museum Film and Video Archive
Imperial War MuseumLOC = Library of Congress (Washington, DC)
Contact: Email, fax, and telephone inquiries are recommended at this point. Postal service was suspended October 2001 because of anthrax fears. Go to Web site below for more information.
Motion Picture DivisionMAP-PAV = Service de la Communication-Pole Audiovisuel, Ministere de l'Agriculture et de la Peche (France). (Formerly Service Cinematographique du minist�re de l'agriculture)
M. Andre DelacroixNAA = Nederlands Audiovisueel Archief (Hilversum, The Netherlands) (Name may be changed later)
Krista van Koppenhagen (email@example.com)NARA = [U.S.] National Archives and Records Administration
Charles DeArman, LibrarianNFAI = The National Film Archive of Iceland
Sigurjon Baldur Hafsteinsson, DirectorNFI = Norwegian Film Institute = Norsk Filminstitutt (Oslo, Norway)
(Ragnar Lovberg?? Vigdis Lian??)NFM = Nederlands Filmmuseum (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Nederlands FilmmuseumSVT = Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) (Stockholm, Sweden)
Sveriges TelevisionVFA = Vrienden van het Filmarchief (Nijmegen, The Netherlands)
Dr. Emile Poppe, Tony van MarenWPR = WALTER P. REUTHER LIBRARY OF LABOR AND URBAN AFFAIRS
Tom Featherstone, Audiovisual Archivist
ORGANIZATIONAL ACRONYMS, INITIALISMS, and GLOSSARY
ECA = Economic Cooperation Administration, which administered $12.4 billion in grants and loans to Western Europe from April 4, 1948, through October 31, 1951. (It was succeeded by MSA.) Headed in the beginning in Washington by industrialist Paul Hoffman, and in Europe by the "Special Representative in Europe" (SRE), W. Averell Harriman, with the rank of Ambassador.
ERP = European Recovery Program. Official designation for the joint aid programs of ECA and OEEC. It was also the popular designation, well known to Europeans at the time.
ESC/ERSC/EPC = (different names at different points in its short life) European Service Center/European Regional Service Center/European Production Center: Located in Paris, the agency was operated by USIA . In addition to the editorial branch, it consisted of four sections: films, photographs, exhibits, and radio. Its function was to disseminate information materials to USIS posts in Western Europe. USIA Washington closed it in 1954 due to budgetary constraints.
FOA = Foreign Operations Administration (Aug 1, 1953-June 30, 1955). Succeeding MSA, the FOA preceded ICA (International Cooperation Administration) and the Agency for International Development.
HICOG = (U.S.) High Commissioner for Germany, the office of the post-World War II American military occupation headquarters
MSA = Mutual Security Agency (November 1, 1951-July 31, 1953) While continuing ECA's economic cooperation and reconstruction in Europe, MSA emphasized American military assistance to the NATO nations and economic aid generally became more defense-related.
NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization
OEEC = Organization for European Economic Cooperation. Set up in Paris by West European nations in 1948 to coordinate their aid requests and work with ECA authorities. Succeeded by OECD (Organization for Economic Reconstruction and Development) 1961, when non-European countries began to join.
OSR = OFFICE OF the SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE, the ECA Special Representative to Europe. See also SRE.
OTAN = Organisation du Trait� de l'Atlantique Nord (French name for NATO)
SRE = ([Office of] Special Representative in Europe, the European headquarters of the ERP and representative in Europe of ECA.). See also OSR.
UK = United Kingdom
USIA/USIS = UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY/UNITED STATES INFORMATION SERVICE (the latter being what USIA posts are called in other countries, e.g., USIS Belgium)
OTHER ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
b&w = black and white
NAIL = NARA Archival Information Locator, a database no longer updated, but available through www.nara.gov. Many films at NARA are listed on NAIL, but many of those in Record Group (RG) 306, the Record Group for the U.S. Information Agency, are not included. These include most of NARA's copies of Marshall Plan films. A new searchable database is in process, but its completion date is as yet unknown.
PPC = Projection Print, Composite, at NARA. The number preceding it represents the number of reels, e.g. 3-PPC = three reels
RPPC = Reversal Projection Print, Composite, at NARA. The number preceding it represents the number of reels, e.g. 3-RPPC = three reels
RPPCK = Reversal Projection Print, Composite, Color, at NARA. The number preceding it represents the number of reels, e.g. 3-RPPCK = three reels
OTAN = Control Code Name for films at IWMFVA inherited from NATO (OTAN in French)
R = Reel
Ref = Reference (viewing) copy
VM = Videomaster (1/2" VHS reference videotapes at NARA)
VT = Videotape
Marshall Plan Filmography Acknowledgments
Albert Hemsing's history of the Marshall Plan's European Film Unit and his accompanying filmography (see Source Material) was the inspiration and basis for this filmography. His resourceful and extraordinary efforts (aided by the German Marshall Fund of the U.S.) to locate existing copies of Marshall Plan films and to make them available at NARA included, with the help of Senator John Kerrey, the successful passage of an act of Congress. This filmography expands on what he began and includes films in the Library of Congress and archives in thirteen of the seventeen participating Marshall Plan countries. Thanks go first to Prof. David Ellwood, who pointed me to the Imperial War Museum, now the home of the NATO film collection. Paul Sargent, Deputy Keeper of IWM's Film and Video Archive, John C. Kerr, Cataloguing Assistant, and Dr. Toby Haggith of the Public Service Office, provided absolutely critical support. Prof. Ellwood also put me in touch with the most helpful Prof.ssa Paola Carlucci of the Archivio Centrale dello State in Rome, the home of a number of unique copies of films created by ECA Italy.
From there the project grew like Topsy. I owe an additional huge debt of gratitude to the following (omitting titles and institutions in the interest of simplicity): Manfried Rauchensteiner, Josef Gloger, Florian Schattauer, Christiane Reiner, and Reinhold Wagnleitner (Austria), Andrea Murphy (Belgium), Thomas Christensen, Inge Glud, Jorgen Stahnke, and Elise Nymark Jensen (Denmark), Luke McKernan, Shona Barrett, Olwen Terris, and Mark Bryant (also England), Jeannine Faurobert, Andre Delacroix, Marguerite-Marie Le Roy, Monique Barra Blanchard, Sylvie Dreyfus, Pascal Robert, A. Brunel, Pierre Dousset, Francois Desme, Virginie Debrabant, Sabine Dequin, M-Ch de Jabrun, and Jean-Yves Murray (France), Karl Griep, Karin Kuehn, and Petra Sachse (Germany), Nick Karamalegos, Vassilis Tsiboukis, and Emilia Mathes (Greece), Sigurjon Baldur Hafsteinsson (Iceland), and Sunniva O'Flynn (Ireland).
Marshall Plan films are scattered all over The Netherlands, and there are many people to thank: Marja Roholl, Thunnis van Oort, Piet van Wijk, Rian Romme, Bert Hogenkamp, Peter Westervoorde, Rob Hogeslag, Joke Vriezekolk, Olivia Buning, Jasper Koedam, Ronny Temme, Emile Poppe, Tony van Maren, Noel van Rens, Ferry Bos, and Jose Kooyman. Others to whom I am indebted are Irene Waestberg, Ragnar Lovberg, Vigdis Lian, and Sigval Maartman-Moe (Norway), Filipe Boavida (Portugal), Elisabeth Martin-Lof and Ulf Hogberg (Sweden), and Aynur Uzer and Figen Sahin (Turkey).
In the U.S., Washington-area film researchers Elisabeth Hartjens, Jim Konicek, Michael Dolan, Joe Harris, and Joan Yoshiwara gave me all kinds of help, as did NARA staff members Les Waffen, Ellie Wackerman, Mark Meader, Vernon Early, Aaron Brown, Kevin Bradley, Steve Graybill, Dan Martin, Lee Rose, and Dino Zervos. Now-retired Bill Murphy, who had also worked with Albert Hemsing, gave great encouragement and support. At the Library of Congress, Rosemary Hanes, Madeline Matz, and Zoran Sinobad offered every possible assistance. Several people provided much-appreciated help with translations: Marijke Abbott and Christine Waanders (Dutch), Erminia Scarcella and Silvia Emanuelli (Italian), and Ingrid Nilsson (Swedish).
The filmography would never have happened without the initiative and support of Albert Beveridge III, President of the George C. Marshall Foundation. The Foundation's Sharon Ritenour Stevens, Associate Editor of The Papers of George Catlett Marshall and creator of A Guide to George C. Marshall Motion Pictures, offered consistent, intelligent, and caring help. Thanks also to Larry Bland, Editor of The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, who was always available to give needed information and assistance.
And above all, my thanks to my patient and ever-supportive husband, Eric Christenson.
Linda R. Christenson, Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org, Fax: 703-532-5653)
Catalogue of Documentary Films. December 1, 1951. Distributed by the Economic Cooperation Administration.
Catalogue of Documentary Films. September 1, 1952. Distributed by the Mutual Security Agency.
Catalogue of Information Films Produced In Europe For The Marshall Plan 1948-1953 by the Film Section, Information Division [of the] Special Representation [sic] in Europe; Economic Cooperation Administration; Mutual Security Agency; Paris, France. Prepared by: Film Section, European Service Center, U.S. Information Agency, Paris, July, 1954.
Dingemans, Ralph, and Rian Romme. Nederland en het marshall-plan, een bronnenoverzicht en filmografie 1947-1953. Den Haag (The Hague): Algemeen Rijksarchief, 1997.
Hemsing, Albert. "The Marshall Plan's European Film Unit, 1948-1955: a memoir and filmography." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 14, No. 3 (1994), 269-97. Note: the Historical Journal... is published by The International Association for Media and History (IAMHIST).
Schulberg, Stuart. "Making Marshall Plan Movies." Film News, (September 1951), pp. 10 and 19. New York, Keegan Pub. Co.
Miscellaneous memoranda and notes pertaining to NATO's acquisition and subsequent disposition of films now at the Imperial War Museum's Film and Video Archive.
The Papers of Cecilia B. (Jackie) Martin in the George C. Marshall Foundation Research Library in Lexington, Virginia.
Correspondence with contacts at various film archives (presently in the MPF Editor's possession, eventually to be in the archives of the George C. Marshall Foundation Research Library).
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© 2002 Linda R. Christenson